US’S REPENTANCE FOR A WRONG HAPPENING IN SUBSTITUTION FOR MANY RIGHT ONES

Ahad Gholizadeh Manghutay

Abstract


In 2000, the U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright stated: “In 1953 the United States played a significant role in orchestrating the overthrow of Iran’s popular Prime Minister, Mohammed Mossadegh.” (Ramos 2008, 25) Later in 2009, the US President Obama as well reiterated the same. (White House 2009) Despite what was quoted, due to many reasons the US in taking the blame for helping the Iranian King through the operation AJAX to oust his Prime Minister in August 19, 1953 has taken the blame for a wrong happening. That from the legal viewpoint was not a coup d’état by the King. It likely was a plan for decolonization of the oil industry from the United Kingdom. It at the maximum can be deemed as an anti-coup movement against what at the maximum apparently was a coup d’état from the opposite i.e. the Mosaddegh's side. With regard to the legal definition of the coup d’état, and considering the required conditions, in despite to wrong opinions (Ghaffari 2000, 8) it could not be a coup from the Kings side. So, from this standpoint, it not only was not a shameful plot degrading the Iranian government but was a credible triumphant movement.    


Full Text:

PDF HTML

References


Balaghi, Shiva. "Silenced Histories and Sanitized Autobiographies: The 1953 CIA Coup in Iran." Biography 36, no. 1 (2013): 71-96.

Branikas, Spyros. NATO Continuity and Change: The Atlantic Alliance as an Institution, Organization and Force by Reference to Articles 4, 5, and 6 of the Washington Treaty. Thesis, Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School, 2004.

CCPS. United States History Curriculum Guide. Clayton County Public Schools, 2008.

Draine, Seth. "The Case for Context: Eisenhower Post-Revisionism and Third World Nationalism." The forum: Cal Poly's Journal of History 4, no. 1 (2012): 1-19.

Fatah, Tarek. Chasing the Mirage - The Tragic Illusion of an Islamic State. Ontario, Canada: Wiley, 2008.

Ghaffari, Masoud. "The Role of Political Economy of Oil in Iran after the Revolution (1979-88)." The Journal of Humanities 7, no. 3 (2000): 1-16.

Haija, Rammy M. "The Real Syriana: Interlocking Directories Shaping a Defense-Petroleum-Policy Complex." Modern Social Science Journal 2 (2014): 1-49.

Jones, Oliver. RS 84C Iran Insights-Iran's Intelligence and Security Apparatus. UK Defence Forum, 2011.

Juneau, Thomas. "Power, Perceptions, Identity and Factional Politics - A Neoclassical Realist Analysis of Iranian Foreign Policy, 2001-2007 ." Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Sciences Association. Ontario, Canada, 2009. 1-19.

Kaviani, Khodadad. "Theoretical Education: Understanding the Islamic Republic of Iran by Analyzing its Textbooks." Social Studies Research and Practice 1, no. 3 (2006): 374-393.

Kressin, Wolfgang K. Prime Minister Mossadegh and Ayatullah Kashani from Unity to Enmity: as Viewed from the American Embassy in Tehran, June 1950-August 1953. Thesis, AFB OH: Air Force Institute of Tech Wright-Patterson, 1991.

Lang, Jamie. "International Sanctions: The Pressure on Iran to Abandon Nuclear Proliferation." J. Int'l Bus. & L. 6, no. 1 (2007): 141-167.

Mahdavi, Mojtaba. "Revolutionary Reform: The Case of Socio-Political Change under Mohammad Mosaddeq." Iran Analysis Quarterly 1, no. 2 (2003): 9-21.

Marsh, Steve. "The United States, Iran and Operation 'Ajax': Inverting Interpretative Orthodoxy." Middle Eastern Studies 39, no. 3 (2003): 1-38.

McKahan, Jason G. Hollywood Counterterrorism: Violence, Protest and the Middle East in US Action Feature Films. Thesis, The Florida State University, 2009.

Moore, Jonathan. "Meddling in the Middle East: The Beginning of the End of US-Iran Foreign Relations." Undergraduate Review 5, no. 1 (1992): 18-26.

Moudgil, Bharat K. "The Diversity of Theoretical Classifications: Scholarly Treatment of the Monarchic Political Formula in the Analysis of Modernization Efforts in Pahlavi Iran." College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal, 2009: 1-70.

Paul, Ron. "The End of dollar Hegemony." Speech given in the US House of Representatives, 2006.

Ramos, Jorge Humberto da Silva. Propaganda: Perspectivea Linguistica e de Corpora de Uma Forca Poderosa. Dissertation, Universidade de Aveiro Departmento de Linguas e Culturas, 2008.

Salehi, Ali. Forced Government Change: A Comparative Study of the Historical and Social Forces Involved in the 1953 Iranian and 2002 Venezuelan Coups d'etat. Dissertation, Latin American Development Studies, 2011.

Tabrizi, Arby Eivazian. The Role of Foreign Intervention in Revolutions. Thesis, San Diego State University, 2012.

Uludag, Mehmet Bulent, Karagul Soner, and Baba Gurol. "Turkey's Role in Energy Diplomacy from Competition to Cooperation: Theoretical and Factual Projections." International Journal of Energy Economics Policy (3) S (2013): 102-114.

White House. Obama's Speech in Cairo. New York Times, 2009


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.