Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities <p><strong>FOCUS AND SCOPE</strong></p> <p>Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities (E-ISSN: 2413-2748) is a double-blind, peer -reviewed journal. The journal publishes research papers in the fields of humanities and social science such as anthropology, business studies, communication studies, corporate governance, criminology, cross cultural studies, demography, development studies, economics, education, ethics, geography, history, industrial relations, international relations, law, linguistics, library science, media studies, methodology, philosophy, political science, population Studies, psychology, public administration, sociology, social welfare, linguistics, literature, paralegal, performing arts (music, theatre &amp; dance), religious studies, visual arts, women studies and so on.</p> <p><strong>PUBLICATION FREQUENCY</strong></p> <p>Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities publishes issue quarterly in a year (in March, June, September and December), with a dedicated mission of contributing to original and high quality research.</p> <p><strong>OPPEN ACCESS POLICY</strong></p> <p>All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute.</p> <p><strong>COPYRIGHT NOTICE</strong></p> <div> <p>The copyrights of article is on the Author(s), however, before publishing, it is required to obtain written confirmation from authors in order to ensure the originality (Author Statement of Originality). This statement is to be signed by at least one of the authors who have obtained the assent of the co-author(s) where applicable.</p> </div> <p><strong>PLAGIARISM ISSUES</strong></p> <p>The manuscript must represent original work by the author(s). None of the material should be covered by any copyright; if copyrighted material exceeding approximately 100 words from a journal article or approximately 500 words from a book is used, the author has obtained written permission for its use. Further, this work should not infringe any intellectual property rights/secrecy laws of any person/organization/government/public or private agency, nor should it contain any defamatory matter. <strong>All the article will be checked by Turnitin Software.</strong></p> <p>This journal does not bear any responsibility for verifying copyright permissions provided by the author. Any breach of copyright laws will result in retraction of the published article/material as well as reporting to relevant authorities at the author's institutions.</p> <p><strong>Digital Archive: </strong>This Journal is using<strong> LOCKSS </strong>digital archive system<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>PUBLICATION CHARGES</strong></p> <p>If the paper is accepted for publication, author(s) will be asked to pay 100 USD as article publication. The publication fees cover the cost of language editing, copyediting, and other editorial expenses. There is no charge <em>during article submission</em>. Publication fees <em>will be charged once the paper</em> is accepted. The payment method will be notified by the editor after the acceptance of the paper. This journal encourages collaborative work. Authors from three different nationalities will get full discount on publication fees.</p> <p><strong>EDITORS' RESPONSIBILITIES</strong></p> <ul> <li>To act in a objective, balanced, and fair way while carrying out expected duties, without discrimination on grounds of gender, religious or political beliefs, ethnic or geographical origin of the authors.</li> <li>To avoid any commercial influence, as well as conflicts of interests, for all submissions and evaluate them solely on academic and scientific merit.</li> <li>To address complaints of any nature and follow reasonable procedures according to the Journal's policies.</li> <li>To give authors full opportunity to respond to complaints.</li> <li>To investigate a complaint regardless of the approval date of publication of an article.</li> <li>To document, compile, and file all complaints.</li> </ul> <p><strong>REVIEWERS' RESPONSIBILITIES</strong></p> <ul> <li>To review the manuscript objectively and timely, inform the editor of a suitable decision and to uphold the quality of articles published in the journal.</li> <li>To maintain strict confidentiality of any information supplied to the reviewer in the review process by the editor or author and ensure that the manuscript is for the reviewer's eyes only and no copies are transmitted or kept.</li> <li>To inform the editor of suspected plagiarism or absence of relevant published work which has not been cited. To avoid any potential conflicts of interests between the author and the reviewer and inform the editor of all developments. </li> </ul> <p><strong>AUTHORS' RESPONSIBILITIES</strong></p> <ul> <li>To ensure that they have significantly contributed to the research, cited all related references and acknowledged financial support from funding agencies.</li> <li>To maintain accurate records of data associated with their submitted manuscript, and supply or provide access to these data, on reasonable request.</li> <li>To confirm that the submitted manuscript is not under consideration or accepted for publication elsewhere.</li> <li>To acknowledge and cite sources whose contents overlap in the submitted paper. </li> <li>To provide the editor with a copy of any submitted manuscript(s) that might contain similar closely related or overlapping content.</li> <li>To ensure that any studies involving human or animal subjects conform to national, local and institutional laws and requirements.</li> <li>To confirm that approval has been sought and obtained where appropriate and obtain written permission from human subjects and respect their privacy.</li> <li>To declare any potential conflicts of interests.</li> <li>To promptly inform the journal editor or publisher if a significant error in their publication is detected and submit an erratum, addendum, corrigendum notice, to be published or retract the paper altogether if it is necessary.</li> </ul> <p><strong>ETHICAL STATEMENT</strong></p> <p>The manuscript must represent original work by the author(s). None of the material should be covered by any copyright; if copyrighted material exceeding approximately 100 words from a journal article or approximately 500 words from a book is used, the author has obtained written permission for its use. Further, this work should not infringe any intellectual property rights/secrecy laws of any person/organization/government/public or private agency, nor should it contain any defamatory matter.</p> <p>This journal does not bear any responsibility for verifying copyright permissions provided by the author. Any breach of copyright laws will result in retraction of the published article/material <strong>as well as reporting to relevant authorities at the authors' institutions.</strong></p> <p><strong>DISCLAIMER</strong></p> <p>Opinions expressed in articles and creative pieces published in this Journal are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the editors, the editorial board or the publisher.</p> en-US <p style="display: block; text-align: justify;">Copyrights for articles published in Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p><p>Articles published in Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities are published under the <a href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license</a>, which permits others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work as long as they credit you for the original creation.</p><p> </p> (Assistant Professor Dr. Md. Zahidul Islam) (Prof.(Retd.) Dr. Akkas Ali) Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:21:53 +0000 OJS 60 REFUGEE, MIGRANT AND STATELESS PERSON IN BANGLADESH: PROBLEMS AND LEGAL PERSPECTIVE <p>This article presents a current issue of Rohingya, stateless and migrant people who faced various problems in Bangladesh and state also faced problems to maintain them. In this regard this paper will provide some solution to overcome these problems. Bangladesh is currently hosting a large number of stateless people namely Rohingya from August 2017. Beside this the liberation war of Bangladesh in 1971 the Biharis were left behind are also treated as stateless and unprotected persons. At present all these people have suffered decades of violence, discrimination and persecution in a massive wave of violence broke out in Myanmar Rakhine State. Rohingya people have fled from Myanmar to seek refuge across the border in Bangladesh and among them 50% are children and they suffered from basic necessity. Bangladesh’s economy spends an estimated $1.21 billion a year supporting the Rohingya and also unemployed crisis and also involved in criminal activities like Yaba drug smuggling. Natural disaster like flooding, fires and Covid-19 has created also fresh challenges for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. The natural disaster like covid- 19, flood, heavy monsoon, landslide in the camp is also creating a lot of sufferings of the Refugees. This paper will pave a way to overcome these challenges. It will be qualitative research. The information will be taken from many readings, articles, newspapers and books.</p> Kaniz Tania , Kazi Sonia Tasnim, Md. Zahidul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Kaniz Tania Tania , Kazi Sonia Tasnim Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 NIGERIAN CURRENCY SYSTEM, 1914-2014: A CENTURY OF TRANSFORMATION <p>In 1914, the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria and the Colony and Protectorate of southern Nigeria were merged by Sir Fredrick Lugard. The new territory became known as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Lugard became its first Governor General and ruled between 1914 and 1919. Before then, Southern Nigeria which was a British Protectorate in the coastal areas of modern-day Nigeria formed in 1900, was added to Lagos Colony in 1906, and the territory was officially renamed the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria. From that time till date, the country has been experiencing transformations in its currency system. This paper sets to offer a historical overview of the transformation of Nigeria’s currency system over a period of one hundred years, from 1914 to 2014. The paper demonstrates how the Nigerian currency system has evolved in the course of hundred years from a cash-based type to an increasingly cashless type. It was concluded that, although it is replete with challenges, the ongoing cashless policy in the country has come to stay. The paper is based on qualitative method of data collection and evaluation. Both primary and secondary sources of historical data have been consulted and utilised on the course of writing the paper.</p> <p> </p> Yasin Abubakar, Mujitaba Liman Arabu Copyright (c) 2023 Yasin Abubakar, Mujitaba Liman Arabu Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 CHALLENGES OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN LIBERIA AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS <p>Liberia is confronted with lots of challenges such as preparing a productive human capital to run its abundant natural resources that have been either mismanaged or left discarded without anticipated development dividends.&nbsp; Thus, this migration left an adverse effect on the tertiary education. However, despite the international and national efforts reform the system, the situation seems to still be facing multiple challenges. Besides, the weakness in the Liberian education system has led the former President Sirleaf herself to describe it as a mess. Moreover, poor implementation of educational policies, ill-financial supports for institutions of higher learning and poor educational infrastructures, etc., are some of major practices that constitute challenges to higher education in the country. Nonetheless, there have been some attempts and endeavors to reform and refine the system. These efforts had been done by the government itself and its local and international partners, such as USAID, the World Bank, the (IMF), the AFDB, A.S Charitable Society with its Heritage School Union System (a local Islamic leading educational and humanitarian NGO) Catholic Schools System, Methodist Schools, and others. The research is qualitatively conducted and observatory in nature. Hence, this article aims at looking into challenges that Liberia’s tertiary education is confronted with, and how could they be mitigated and properly addressed. The study conclude that a radical reform and implementation of the policies are the’ ways to meet the market-driven education system in Liberia.</p> Mory Sumaworo Copyright (c) 2023 Mory Sumaworo Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 TOWARDS A RECONCEPTUALIZATION OF POVERTY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ERADICATION AND POLICY. <p>The success of any poverty alleviation strategy depends partly on how poverty is conceptualized. The overarching goal of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is “Ending poverty in all its forms everywhere” and this demonstrates the need to conceptualize poverty beyond not only monetary dimensions but also considering it as an experience and a strategy on which other peoples’ lifestyles depends on. To improve the understanding of the multi-dimensional aspects of poverty the article proposes that poverty can be grouped into three dimensions namely: moral, material and social. By restricting the access to resources by those who lack them, those with political, economic and social power exhibit moral poverty. Targeting moral poverty is the key strategy to eliminate all forms of poverty.</p> Emmanuel Siziba , Jephias Mapuva Copyright (c) 2023 Jephias Mapuva, Emmanuel Siziba Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 INCOME POVERTY AND CHILD STREETISM IN DODOMA AND DAR ES SALAAM, TANZANIA <p><em>Tanzania has been implementing several initiatives to address the challenge of street children in the country. Despite such efforts, the child streetism has become the daily reality and has shown the sign of increasing. </em><em>This article explores</em><em> the influence of income poverty on child streetism in urban Tanzania. Specifically, the article focused on analysing the live experiences of street children; and describing the influence of income poverty on streetism of children. The article adopted the descriptive cross-sectional design and involved a total of 56 informants who were purposively selected while the snowballing sampling technique was used in accessing street children. Semi-structured interview, documentary review and observation method were used to collect data. Through thematic and content data analysis techniques this article revealed that street children experienced difficulties in getting their basic needs and did not easily access health services when they fell sick. Further, child streetism has been largely influenced by income poverty. Hence, the study recommends that; develop a formal and functional support system to facilitate children on the street to access the educational services. Regarding coping strategies as an emerged issue, street children engaged into begging, unsafe sex and petty income-generating activities such as car wash and bottle collection. They also used self-medication to treat themselves when they fell sick or being left at the hospital buildings or on the street by their fellow street children when the condition got worse. Additionally, they did not have any coping strategy to enroll themselves into the school.</em></p> Sister Shitindi, Adella Nyello, Fredy Mswima Copyright (c) 2023 Sister Shitindi Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FAMILY SUPPORT AND CHILD STREETISM IN DAR ES SALAAM AND DODOMA <p><em>Street children are becoming common in the developing countries despite the implementation of several interventions. Family support as one of the interventions to address street children and considered to be the leading one. However, there is a dearth of literature on the influence of family support on child streetism. In this regard, the article explored the influence of family support on child streetism in Dodoma and Dar es Salaam.&nbsp; This article adopted the cross sectional descriptive design whereby the informants were selected using purposive and snowballing sampling techniques and data. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and documentary review and thematic data analysis technique was used to analyse the qualitative data. The findings revealed that family support influences child streetism. Children are not likely to live in the street when the families support them. Specifically, </em>substance use and abuse of parents and guardians, single parenting families, child-headed household, child neglect and family violence contribute to street children. <em>The article among others recommends that parenting skills and style of the community members must be enhanced to provide favourable environment within the family setting for children to cherish their future. </em></p> Sister Shitindi, Adella Nyello, Fredy Mswima Copyright (c) 2023 Sister Shitindi Thu, 30 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000